Comparing the effects of spiritual meditation, secular meditation, and relaxation on spiritual, psychological, cardiac, and pain outcomes.

  J Behav Med. 2005 Aug;28(4):369-84. Is spirituality a critical ingredient of meditation? Comparing the effects of spiritual meditation, secular meditation, and relaxation on spiritual, psychological, cardiac, and pain outcomes. Wachholtz AB1, Pargament KI. Author information Abstract This study compared secular and spiritual forms of meditation to assess the benefits of a spiritual intervention. Participants…